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The rough guide to the Islamic Investment world (in South Africa)

So this is my rough guide to Islamic investments within the South African Universe (it can apply globally, except my examples is all South African based). Hope it is informative and encourages halal investing.
Suggestions welcome
Section 1: Investment Universe 
  1. Islamic Bank fixed deposits
About: Invest your money for a fixed period (1 month up to 5 years). Get profit when period is completed
Pros: Reliable profit , Low financial risk, low Islamic risk : covered by a board of Shariah scholars
Cons: Low profit rates.

  1. Unit trusts
About: Collective investment - managed by investment company, protected by SA law, typically invests in equities, sukuks and property
Pros: Plenty of choice, Provided by registered Financial Service Providers, Sharia Boards , diversification
Cons: Typically High fees, .

  1. ETF
About: Collective investment
Pros: low fees, Provided by registered Financial Service Providers, Sharia Boards , diversification
Cons: only one option in SA, heavily weighted on Resources

  1. Shares
About: Pick your own stocks off the exchange
Pros: High profit potential,
Cons: Very Risky, No Islamic oversight (hence need to do your own screening)

  1. Property
About: Tried and test property
Pros: Stable Asset, Tangible, Straightforward, Zakah benefits,
Cons: High capital outlay, expensive legal costs (transfebond registration) , Not very liquid,
  1. Custom Wealth Solutions
About: Customized Wealth management and investments
Pros: Professional advice, custom solution
Cons: Available exclusively to high net worth individuals, Investment advise appears to be fee based

Section 2: Definitely not halal 
  1. Margin based investing: Margin = interest = haram. Also very risky
  2. Futures contracts: Shorting, going long, all CFD's and futures contracts are impermissible. Because a condition for a halal investment is that the underlying asset must be owned
  3. Forex: Or at least forex based on CFD's and margins. Buying dollars to travel should be perfectly fine.
  4. Stocks/Equities that primarily deal in haram activities: Gambling, pork, etc

Section 3: Grey Areas 
  1. Crypto ( Bitcoin ,etc) : In theory these should be more "halal" than fiat currency (what all money in the world is) however there are differences of opinion.
  2. Shares : There are grey areas : Most companies has an element of haram income (interest, etc). Scholars have devised ratios to to filter out "islamic stocks" from haram stocks (30-33% max debt, max 5% haram income, liquid ratios, etc). It is for this reason these stocks requires dividend purification.
However you should be aware of this before venturing into to stocks as you might not be comfortable with that thought (This also affects EFTs, Unit trusts, etc).
3 Easy Equities: Easy equities makes it cheap and easy to own equities. However I would at all times buy/sell only whole shares and not fractional shares. Fractional shares are done as a CFD (a bit different from a forex CFD). You get all the benefits of ownership such as dividends and capital gains on a pro rate basis. But you do not actually own the CFD until you buy enough CFD to get a real whole share. That being said, it is still grey, best to avoid fractional shares entirely
4. Halal Forex Accounts: Somehow these are marketed that way. Here's a link to (Islamic Finance Guru) who has a bit more knowledge on this. (Note: I am not affiliated in any way or get any benefit)
Section 4: Conclusion 
I sincerely hope this helps , and encourages to invest in the Islamic world.
Any ideas, inputs and suggestions welcome.


Disclaimer 1 : Corrections welcome, I am not a learned scholar, this is not financial advice, you bear the responsibility & consequences of your own decisions/investments
Disclaimer 2 : At some point FNB Sharia board quit , they subsequently hired a new board. They don't however make it easy to find who is in the board from their website. However the information can be found in news websites.
submitted by Flying_Koeksister to IslamicFinance [link] [comments]

Inflation, Gauge Symmetry, and the big Guh.

Inflation, Gauge Symmetry, and the big Guh.
Sup retards, back at it with the DD/macro.
scroll to the rain man stuff after the crayons if you don't care about the why or how.
TLDR:
June 19 $250 SPY puts
May 20 $4 USO puts
SPY under 150 by January next year.

So I was going about my business, trying to not $ROPE myself as my sweet tendies I made during the waterfall of March have evaporated, however, I heard that the fed was adding another $2.3T in monopoly money to the bankers pile specifically to help facilitate these loan programs being rolled out.
In short, they are backing these dumb-ass, zero recourse, federally mandated, loans with printing press money.
But cumguzzler OP, your title is about inflation and guage simp--try, why are you talking about the fed #ban.
Well, when you print money it is an inflationary action in theory. Let me explain.

EDUMACATION TIME

What is inflation? Inflation is the sustained increase in the price level in goods and services. Inflation is derived from a general price index, and in the US, from the consumer price index. Knowing that inflation is an outcome, not a set policy is very important. Inflation is a measurement after the fact, much like your technical astrology indicators. (**ps, use order flow in your TA you wizards**)
HOWEVER, the actual act of buying bundles of these loans does not directly impact inflation.
Now what is Gauge symmetry? Gauge symmetry is a function of math and theoretical physics that can be applied to finance models. What a gauge is, is a measurement. Gauge symmetry is when the underlying variable of something changes, however, we do not observe that variable change.
A great example of this is if you and a friend are moving, and your friend is holding a box of tendies. The box is a cube, equal on all sides. If you turn away for a moment and she rotates the cube 90 degrees while you are not looking, and you look back - you would have no idea the cube was rotated. There was a very real change in the position of the cube in relation to space-time. Your friend acted on it. But you didn't measure it, in fact it would be impossible for you to determine if the box was changed at all if you weren't observing it. That movement of the box where you didn't observe it, is called gauge transformation and happens literally more then JPow fucks my mom in quantum physics. The object observably exactly the same even though it is not physically the same. The act of it existing as an observably the same box is gauge symmetry - it is by observation symmetrical.
Why this is important, is that fiat money doesn't have any absolute meaning. The value of $1 is arbitrary. furthermore, Inflation is a Guage symmetry. Inflation has no real impact on the real value of the underlying goods and services, but rather serves as a metric to measure the shift of value across a timeline.
When JPow starts pluggin' your mom along with all these balance sheets, there is a gauge symmetry event happening. The money he is printing is entering the system (gauge transformation), this isn't an issue if all pricing against the USD get shifted equally, however, the market is not accounting for this money because we don't have real-time data on what is being applied where, we only get a slow drip in terms of weekly and monthly reports. WE HAVE OUR EYES CLOSED. This is a gauge symmetry event.
When this happens in real terms, the market becomes dislocated from its real value price. Well how do we know there is a dislocation?
"YoU JuSt SaId tHe UnDeRlYiNg VaLuE iZ AbStRaCkKt HuRr QE aNd MaRkEtS Iz ComPlEx ReAd A TeXtBuK AbOuT FrAcTiOnAl ReSErVe BanKiNg YoU NeRd." - **anyone rationalizing the bull run**
We can look at Forex you fish.
USD lives in a bubble. The Yen is in a bubble, the RMB is in a bubble, and we exchange with each other. the Jap central bank has little effect on the CPI index (cost of goods and services) of the US. If the Yen prints a gazillion dollars, the USD is not effected EXCEPT in its exchange rate. YEN:USD would see a sizeable differential the more Yen is printed and vise-versa.
So NOW instead of JPow getting away with plowing your girlfriend, we can catch the bitch.
Instead of looking at the gauge transformation at face value and then giving up because it is symmetrical output, we can look and see if this gauge symmetry carries over to the foreign exchange market. Well guess what happens when you look at the value of the USD against foreign currencies.
Consistent uncertainty during the fed operations. Meaning the market of banks that partake in FX swaps don't know where to spot the USD. Generally a very very bad thing.
Value of the USD to Euro 2017-2020, notice the slow decline, then the chaos at the end
Above is the value of the USD to Euro, notice the sloping decline. The dollar has been growing weaker since 2017. At the end you see our present issues, lets #ENHANCE
USD to Euro, January 2020 to Present
When you see those spikes, those are days in between Fed action. The value of the US goes up when the fed doesn't print because people aren't spending. Non-spending is a deflationary event and has a direct impact on the CPI. However, each drop when you line up the dates, was a date of Fed spending.
Lets look outside of the Eurozone.

This is the RMB to USD. Yes China manipulates, but look at the end of the graph
China manipulated rates early in 2018 however you can see the steady incline upward towards the of 2018. More specifically, lets look at it since December.
RMB value against USD, January to Now
You Can see the Chinese RMB has been gaining steam since December, even with Chinese production falling off a cliff all through this pandemic.

What this rain man level autism means for the economy.

Looking across the board at Forex we can see the USD having a schizo panic attack jumping up and down like me at a mathematics lecture.
But what does all this gauge BDSM and shit have to do with the markets? Well it shows 1 of 3 things are occuring.
  1. The fed is printing money to offset deflationary pressures of the economy being fuk for the past month, and therefore all this printing is offset by the loss of liquidity throughout the system and we are all retared. (SECRET: THIS IS WHAT ALL THE INSTITUTIONS THINK IS HAPPENING AND WE WILL ALL BE FINE.)
  2. The deflationary event is overplayed, and JPow just is nailing his coffin together. This would result in long term hyperinflation similiar to the Weimar republic. The only hedge against this is to load up on strong currency that do not manipulate and have enough distance from US markets that they can have some safety (ironically the Ruble is the safest currency. Low link to the USD and not influenced by China, and on discount rn)
  3. The gauge transformation is actually not as severe as they are blurting out, the fed does not pass go, does not actually print 10 Trillion dollars, and this was all a marketing ploy to not get Trump involved and prop markets. In this case, the real deflationary event is real, the USD red rockets harder then my cock and we end up market-wise at a very high asset price in relation to real value. This one is most dangerous because it increases the real value of debt and has mass dislocation between real value and market cap. You took debt at a fixed interest rate and a fixed principal, this would cause the biggest GUH in history when all of a sudden you are $100 million in debt and your revenue was $50 million a year ago, but now is only $25 million. That $100 million in debt is still $100 million and now you have a credit crisis because past values of money were inflated. This spirals into a large scale solvency crisis of any company utilizing current growth methodology (levering up to your tits in debt)
In only 1 of these 3 scenarios do we see any sort of "good" outcome? That would be the offset of deflationary pressures.
It is very important to understand that inflation is only a measurement, and itself does not denote value of real goods and services.

Option 1 of a print fiesta that works (something similar to 1981-82) seems possible. A similar environment and reaction occured in the early 80s when the government brute-forced a bull run using these same offset theorems but in that situation, Volker at the fed had interest rates at 21.5% and had 20% to come down to stimulate the inflationary reaction.
Long term this would just lever up more debt and expanded the real wealth gap over time because we kicked the can down the road another 15 years. If that happens again socioeconomically I don't see capitalism surviving (yeah Im on my high horse get over it). This is the option that many fiscal policymakers and talking heads abide by and the reason why the markets are green. However, it is really just kicking it down the road and expanding real wealth inequality. You think Bernie Sanders is bad, wait until homes cost $3million dollars in Kentucky and AOC Jr comes around.

If we get option 2, we see hyperinflation and we turn into Zimbabwe, which is great, I've always wanted to see Africa. Long term we could push interest rate back to 1980 Volker levels and slowly revalue the US against real value commodities already pegged to the USD like oil. This would be a short term shock but because of international reliance on the USD system, we could slowly de-lever this inflation over 2-3 years and be back to normal capacity although the markets would blow their O-ring. Recession yes, but no long term depression.

If we get option 3, the worst long term option in my opinion, basically any company with any revolver line drawn down when that hits is going to go under, private equity won't touch it with a 20ft stick because cashflows couldn't possibly handle the debt on the end of the lever, and we see mass long term unemployment. The only way out of the spiral of option three is inflationary pressure from the fed+government, but because we are already so far down the rabbit hole at the current moment there's no fucking way we could print another 10 trillion. USD treasuries couldn't handle the guh and we would essentially be functionally forced into a long term (7-10 year) depression because nothing anyone could do would delever the value of the dollar. This would result in the long term collapse of the United States as a world power and would render us like Russia in 1991.

Thank you for coming to my ted talk.
submitted by TaxationIsTh3ft to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

What's Happening in May 2019?


Public holidays Labour Day 1st May, Wednesday
Cinco De Mayo 5th May, Sunday (Not Observed)
Mother's Day 12th May, Sunday (Not Observed)
Vesak Day 19th May, Sunday (Observed: 20th May, Monday)

Ongoing Events


Every Sunday Music Jazz Jam Sessions Cask and Bangers Free 9pm
Till 12 May Culinary; Festival WGS 2019: Sustainability in the Gastronomy World Various Various Schedule here
Family; Theatre The Very Hungry Caterpillar and Other Eric Carle Favourites Victoria Theatre From $18 Various Showtimes
Social Sparks Connection Various From $39.90 Various
Till 25 May Workshop Teochew Classes for Beginners Sakae Building $239.38 9am
Till 8 Jun Musical The Phantom of the Opera Sands Theatre at Marina Bay Sands From $75 Various Showtimes
Every Fri - Sun; Till 30 June Exhibition; Family 22 Stories Ayer Rajah Community Club From $38 Fri - 5.30pm - 9.30pm; Sat & Sun - 10am-2pm & 5.30pm - 9.30pm
Till 27th Jul Music Singapore Rhapsodies at National Museum National Museum of Singapore Free Various Timings
Till 22 Sep Exhibition Wonderland ArtScience Museum $18 10am - 7pm

Events by Date


DATE DAY/DURATION CATEGORY EVENT VENUE PRICE ADDITIONAL INFO
01 Wednesday Tour Istana Open House Istana Park $2 8.30am - 6pm
Astronomy Journey to Space Istana Park Free 9am
Concert MAYDAY! [email protected] $72 2pm
02 Thursday Concert Atul Khatri - Live in Singapore SOTA Concert Hall From $50 8pm
Karaoke LIVE Rockstar Karaoke River Valley Road Free 6pm
Workshop Millennialship Workshop Clarke Quay Free 7pm - 9.30pm
03 Friday Concert Troye Sivan: ‘The Bloom Tour’ Singapore The Star Theatre From 98 8pm
Concert Bence Szepesi, Clarinet Esplanade Recital Studio $38 7.30pm
Concert RHYTHMS, RITES AND RENEWALS Esplanade Concert Hall From $18 7.30pm
Festival JustCo @ 20 Collyer Quay Open House Collyer Quay Free 11am
04 Saturday Concert Adam Gyorgy, Improvisations 2019 Esplanade Concert Hall From $18 7.30pm
Concert Jacintha Is Her Name Concert Esplanade Recital Studio $45 8pm
Concert Songs At Twilight Botanic Gardens Free 6pm - 7pm
Concert Very Venetian: Various Vivaldi Concerti The Theatre Practice Free 8pm
Concert FIVERA-Pop Opera live in Singapore Orchard From $98 6pm
Cinco De May; 18+ Cinco De Mayo River Valley Free 8pm
Cinco De May; 18+ Cinco De Mayo With Singapore Pub Crawl Raffles Place $33 7pm
Cinco De May; 18+ Cinco de Mayo FeasTa Marina Boulevard $20 5pm
Mental Wellness Positive Psychology Day 2019 Orchard Road $22 11am
Books James Suresh @ Books Kinokuniya SG Kinokuniya Free 2pm
Tech AI + IoT Day by CloudxLab and IoTSG Singapore University of Social Sciences Free 9am
Tech Web Development for Beginners Henderson Free 10am
Cooking; Workshop Put Down Your Books, and Let's Cook Blossom Youth Centre $10/class 5pm
Sports BEDOK SOCCER GROUP Kaki Bukit Community Centre Free 8.30am
Sports CheekieFitness Partner Yoga Marina Bay From $10 7.45am
Mental Wellness Advance Care Planning Tampines Free 11am
05 Sunday Environment Coastal Clean Up: Sungei Seletar Sungei Seletar Free 4.30pm
06 Monday Music Nostalgic Melodies of Yesteryear with JOE & THE SOUL EXPRESS Esplanade Recital Studio $15 10.30am & 3pm
Social Unblue your Monday Cross Street $50 For 32 Years old and above only
Fitness; Health 1-Day Fitness Pass The Herencia $20 9am
06 - 12 Festival MOTHER’S DAY WEEK Punggol Free 11am - 8pm
07 Tuesday Drink; 18+ Vitasoy Barista Challenge Tampines $18 3pm
Sports IBC Sports - Basketball Methodist Girl's School Free 7pm
08 Wednesday Music Alex Hutchings Tubeology Clinic The Substation $21 7.30pm
Marketing; Workshop Social Media Marketing World M38 @ Jalan Pemimpin Free 7pm
Panel Discussion CSA APAC Summit 2019 Eunos Free 8.30am
09 Thursday Drink; 18+ Almaza Beer Pairing Event Church Street $53 6.30pm
Sports IBC Sports - Fishing TBC Free 5am
Sports IBC Sports - Cycling King's Road Free 6am
09 - 12 Family; Puppet Show ELMER THE PATCHWORK ELEPHANT SHOW KC Arts Centre From $42 Various Showtimes
10 Friday Concert ORIENTAL STRINGS Victoria Concert Hall From $23 7.30pm
Concert MISSA SOLEMNIS · MASAAKI SUZUKI Esplanade Concert Hall From $25 7.30pm
Social; Food Meet over Dinner Jurong $48 7pm
Keynote Session What You Need to Know About Freelancing in Photography. Selegie Road Free 7pm
10 - 11 Dance SIDES 2019 SOTA Studio Theatre $30 Various Showtimes
10 - 18 Festival; Drink Singapore Cocktail Festival 2019 Empress Lawns From $35 !8+
10 - 19 Film Festival European Union Film Festival National Gallery Singapore $12 Various Showtimes
11 Saturday Concert Jason Mraz: Good Vibes 2019 The Star Theatre From $98 8pm
Concert Jordan Chan Stop Angry Tour In Singapore 陈小春 Stop Angry 巡回演唱会新加坡站 Resorts World Convention Centre From $88 8pm
Workshop; Art Family Art Workshop National Gallery Singaproe From $20 1.30pm - 3pm
Music; Social Music Bingoi! Hollandse Club $27 8.30pm - 12.30am
Music Cruising Reggae Beats Party Deutschlander Free 10pm - 3am
Movie; Food Afternoon Tea and Movie Suntec City $49 2.30pm
Social; Food Bond Over Lunch Buona Vista $45 12.30pm
Social; Food CLASSIC DATING WESTERN DINNER Suntec City $49 6.30pm; Over 30 years old only
Art; Workshop AGAVE ACRYLIC PAINTING WORKSHOP Gardens by the Bay $30 3pm - 5pm
Family; Tech Microthon 2019 IDEAS Hub Free 9am
11 & 12 Food; Market Sprout 2019 Suntec Singapore Convention Free 10am - 8pm
12 Sunday
Concert Katya: Help Me I'm Dying - Live in Singapore Shine Auditorium From $88 8pm
Concert SSO MOTHER'S DAY CONCERT Singapore Botanic Gardens Free 6pm
Drink; 18+ Saturday Beer Club Orchard Centre $55 3pm
Workshop “Make-Your-Own” Blooming Tea Suntec Convention Centre $38 3.30pm
Entrepreneur PAK Challenge 2019 Finals SMU Free 2.30pm
13 Monday Concert Ding Yi Special Season Pass 2019 鼎艺团乐季特惠票 Various $62 Various Showtimes
13 & 15 Concert Esplanade Presents Mosaic Music Series Esplanade From $ 35 8pm
14 Tuesday Workshop Moms in Business Jalan Permimpin Free 10.30am; Other dates available
15 Wednesday Sports IBC Sports - Golf Various Free 1pm
15 - 26 Theatre Civilised Various Various Rated R18; Various timings
16 Thursday
16 May . 2 Jun Art Festival Singapore International Festival of Arts Esplanade Theatre Various Various Showtimes
17 Friday Concert Guftagoo with Gulzar Esplanade Concert Hall From $50 8pm
Seminar Limestone Hills in Peninsular Malaysia - to conserve or exploit Botanic Gardens Free 4pm - 5pm
Music Visages School of the Arts Free 7pm
17 - 20 Concert Series SSO Chamber Music Season Victoria Concert Hall $20 Various Showtimes
18 Saturday Concert KINGDOM HEARTS Orchestra –World of Tres– Esplanade Concert Hall From $109 8pm
Art; Nature Nature Sketching in the Gardens Botanic Gardens Free 9am
Workshop Turning IDEAS into Income A Good Space $22 10am
19 Sunday Health CVD & Hypertension/Hypotension Bartley Residences Free 3pm
20 Monday Concert IF WITH ALL YOUR HEARTS Victoria Concert Hall Free 12.30pm
21 Tuesday Music; Tour Victoria Concert Hall Open House Victoria Concert Hall Free 8.30am onwards
Panel Discussion; Tech How to Rapidly Build a Successful Technology Team Anson 79 Free 7pm
22 Wednesday Concert SYMPHONY OF VOICES 2019 Esplanade Concert Hall From $15 7.30pm
23 Thursday Workshop; Health CERT First Aider Course Woodlands Free 9am
Business Seminar Key Market Events and The Road to Forex Raffles City Free 7pm
23 & 24 Tech Echelon Asia Summit 2019 Singapore Expo From $10 9am
24 Friday Drink; 18+ Organic Wines from French Vineyards Nepal Park $45 7pm - 9.30pm
Art; Fashion Fashion meets Art F1 Pit Building Free 7.30pm
25 Saturday Festival AIA GLOW FESTIVAL Sentosa From $73 7pm - 11pm
Concert NOOR: Sounds of Sufi with Harshdeep Kaur and Javed Ali Esplanade Concert Hall From $35 8.15pm
Concert SLO Children's Choir Concert: How Far I'll Go Victoria Concert Hall From $20 7.30pm
25 & 26 Tech Short Course- Data Analytics Using Python Victoria Street $600 9am - 6pm
Nature Festival of Biodiversity 2019 HDB Hub 10.30am - 10.30pm
Mental Wellness RevOILution Wellness Expo 2019 Marina Bay Sands Expo Free 9am - 7pm
25 May - 4 Jun Festival Esplanade presents Flipside Various From $20 Various Showtimes
26 Sunday Concert SONG BRIDGES Victoria Concert Hall $20 4pm
27 Monday Workshop The Science of Healthy Hair Orchard Free 7.30pm
29 Wednesday Sports MBC Fun Walk & Race Mapletree Business City Free 4pm
30 Thursday Concert 26th Singapore International Piano Festival - Sa Chen Victoria Concert Hall From $20 7.30pm
30 May - 2 Jun Family Peter and Blue Go Around The World Presented by Singapore Dance Theatre Esplanade Theatre Studio $30 11am & 2pm
31 Friday Concert 26th Singapore International Piano Festival - Ronan O'Hora Victoria Concert Hall From $20 7.30pm
Festival MOTHER'S DAY CELEBRATION Killiney Exchange $38 7pm
Family; Tech Mod & Hack 3D Games Bukit Timah Plaza 9.30am
submitted by eilletane to singapore [link] [comments]

Yes, China is Hoarding Gold: Is That Positive for Prices?

In mid-2015, China ended years of speculation over its gold reserves by announcing that it had 1,658 tons of gold. The People’s Bank of China (PBOC) had increased its official gold holdings by 60% since its last disclosure in 2009. China had 1,054 tons of gold in its reserves as of April 2009.
By 2015, the price of bullion had dipped to its lowest since the 2011 gold bull run that pushed the metal to highs of $1,900 per ounce. The East Asian economic giant had been accumulating gold as the USD strengthened, pushing the prices of bullion to some of the lowest levels of the decade.
China is an export powerhouse and is not only the world’s largest exporter but also the largest holder of foreign exchange (forex) reserves. The country has over $3.11 trillion worth of foreign exchange holdings, to shield it during economic emergencies.
These vast forex reserves also buoy its native currency and give it much-needed clout in international affairs. These immense reserves increase the footprint of the US dollar in international trade. Its dollar reserves have also been a significant contributor to the current global savings glut.
The Chinese manufacturing sector holds a lot of US government bonds, and these savings — plus those made by other Asian countries — have directed mass capital flows to US households.
Beijing has, however, clarified that it is diversifying its reserves away from the dollar.
Beijing is highly exposed to American currency. Its overdependence on the dollar has been behind its silent gold-buying spree that raised its reserves from 1,658 tons in 2015 to 1,848.31 tons by the fourth quarter of 2019.
Economists note that China’s bid to decouple from the dollar heightened with the China-US trade war. The US threatened not only Chinese stocks listed in the US with delisting, but slapped massive tariffs on their exports. China, on the other hand, used its dollar-pegged currency, the Yuan, to fight back against the US’s punitive measures.

China Diversifying its Forex Reserves

In August, the PBOC allowed the Yuan’s value to fall against the dollar to cheapen its exports. The move increased the prices of American goods, a move that not only caused a massive shockwave in the market but also angered the US president so much that he called China an outright currency manipulator.
Besides diversifying to other currencies, China has also accumulated “shadow reserves.” Diversification away from the USD will also give the Yuan a more significant role in global finance. It is this Chinese desire to counteract a highly US dollar-centric system that has seen the country buy up massive amounts of gold as part of its alternative investments.
One factor that has gone almost unnoticed is the massive accumulation of gold by Chinese citizens. They have collectively imported over 12,000 tons of gold into the country since 2009. Switzerland is the world’s largest importer of gold, buying about 22% of all global gold imports as per 2018 data.
It is closely followed by China, which raked in close to 16% of all gold imports in the same year. Hong Kong, India, and the United Kingdom are also part of the world’s biggest gold-buyer markets. Switzerland might be a global leader in gold imports, but it is also the largest exporter of the premier precious metal.
The central European country is a gold refinery hub, and it is home to four of the world’s largest gold refineries. The mountainous country is home to Newmont Mining’s Valcambi SA, which refines close to 1,400 metric tonnes of the precious metal every year.
Switzerland is such an exporter of gold that of the 3,100 tons of the yellow metal produced in the country in 2016, 2,716 tons went to exports.

China Keeps Most of its Gold

China is the world’s second-largest importer of gold, but unlike Switzerland, most of the gold China imports remain in China. As an illustration, China imported $64 billion worth of gold in 2016, and only exported a paltry $1.2 billion worth of it. In essence, China was $62.7 billion richer by the end of that year.
The East Asian nation not only stores its imports but also buys a large share from Hong Kong, the fifth most prolific importer of the precious metal. The Pearl of the Orient bought 842 tons or 8.7% of the world’s gold imports in 2016. In that year, Hong Kong sold 1,337 tons to China, dipping its hands into its reserves in its bid to meet the insatiable Chinese demand for gold.
The Chinese have not always had it easy with gold. Mao Zedong banned the individual purchase of gold, and the ban was enforced for decades afterward. The Chinese bank was the only buyer of gold in the country, and it only allocated its gold reserves to a small number of state-owned jewelers.
In the early 2000s, the ban on individual gold purchases was lifted, and the Chinese gold rush began in earnest. The world’s busiest physical gold exchange was launched and opened to the public, flourishing as the government put measures in place that encouraged the gold trade.
This excitement and clamor for gold moved a lot of gold from western vaults to the east as the most massive movement of gold recorded in recent history took place.
Since then, the Chinese demand for gold takes 14% of the world’s supply, yet the country has been the largest producer of the yellow metal since 2007. The nation consumes over two times more gold than it mines with a large percentage of its citizens spending massive amounts of cash on gold adornments.
Many Chinese millennials spend thousands of Yuan on fashionable jewelry. Their parents, on the other hand, buy 24-carat clunky gold jewelry, the perfect investment vehicle for that generation.
The jewelry — evocative of gold ingots — is easy to sell and the money recouped when the need arises. They also buy matt ranges of gold jewelry, shunning tacky pure gold adornments for creative and lower carat gold designs.

Gold is a Safer Investment in a Debt-Ridden Global Economy

China has been a net importer of gold since the 1990s, but its significant purchases have increased since the global economic recession. The Chinese central bank — the supervisors of the Shanghai Gold Exchange — has encouraged the gold trade in the country by enabling the commerce of fine gold at its lowest spreads.
Sun Zhaoxue, the China Gold Association president, has, in the past, said:
“Individual investment demand is an essential component of China’s gold reserve system, and we should encourage individual investment demand for gold. Practice shows that gold possession by citizens is a useful supplement to national reserves and is very important to national financial security …. We should advocate to ‘store gold among the people’ [“People’s Gold”] and guide a healthy, positive development in this segment … This is the aim of our gold strategy.”
She goes on to ask for a strategic national gold strategy to make China resilient against multiple economic occurrences. To this end, the Shanghai Gold Exchange has made tremendous steps in making the gold trade as easy as possible, even launching an app to aid it.
China’s centuries-old infatuation with gold has led them to accumulate over 20,000 tons of gold because the People’s Bank of China does not buy gold from the domestic market.
Consequently, all the gold that is purchased by the Chinese stays in the local market. Pundits also believe that the Chinese central bank holds more gold than its official reserve numbers portray. The economic giant underreports its gold holdings to enable it to accumulate more of the precious metal at lower prices.
As China slowly delinks from a USD that has already lost its value due to prevailing high debt to GDP ratios globally, it stands out as one nation prepping for an oncoming economic catastrophe that could inevitably lift prices.
The World Bank has already issued a warning that the current wave of debt is untenable. Global debt percentages now exceed 322% of GDP. Central banks have pushed the global economy to the brink due to easing policies meant to stimulate economic activity.
Unfortunately, they find themselves intertwined in a broadening circle of money printing activities, which will eventually lead to extreme inflation. The management of inflation means that real rates will keep falling, and gold values will keep rising.
In debt-ridden financial systems, he who holds the gold makes the rules. And China is ready to step up.
submitted by y0ujin to NovemGold [link] [comments]

Digital Gold: Gold Token that you must have

Digital Gold: Gold Token that you must have

https://preview.redd.it/6v10zlteoob41.png?width=544&format=png&auto=webp&s=f5b841317ea9142966a1474121e210c511380e92
Introduction
Blockchain is an absolutely explicit age moreover the loved gold metallic thus the cooperation of gold and blockchain the utilization of the virtual gold endeavor as a crossing over component makes the team a strain to deal with in the global fiscal market. It besides gives contemporary abilties that make low-expense exchanges, amazing unchanging nature, impenetrable security framework, most prominent savvy understanding usefulness, whole marketplace straightforwardness with considered fundamental assistance for ERC-20 wallets.
A gainful crypto forex item is really not difficult to find; on the off chance that you do it appropriately.
Be that as it may, because of the reality investment always makes people concerned and reluctant to begin, various beneficial financing stock are hard to perceive. Investments doubtlessly have perils, however you may decrease the ones misfortunes with alright expertise and actualities and the correct subsidizing steps.
Of the differing investment items accessible, here it's far Digital Gold financing stock with the aim to profit you.
The digital gold knows the risky aftereffects of market unpredictability boggling the exhibition of most crypto outside cash exchanges thus its guarantees a steady coin through pegging the token to the expense of gold spot rate, with modalities that give clients the likelihood to encounter an all-inclusive and a far more noteworthy relentless gold charge cost.
There isn't any requirement for clients to engage fears on the liquidity of this gold because of the reality virtual gold gives an autonomous live review that might be inspected to investigate if the correct amount of tokens in circle is earnestly indistinguishable from the amount of physical gold put away inside the vaults.
Gold as showed up with the helpful guide of many is an incredible financing plan and a urgent a piece of a one-of-a-type portfolio in view of the reality its expense will ceaselessly be solid in reactions to occasions and Gold has been said to hold its charge over the long time. On a more extensive awareness, I will say crypto remote cash has presented us a far more extensive perspective on factors past our innovativeness and with Gold token.
The Digital Gold Platform is a blockchain platform intended to energize the appropriation and the digitalization of the monetary gold markets, and their clear subsidizing devices. Digital Gold Platform wants to profit the selection and digitalization with the arrangement of allowing clients to look for positive amount of real gold, through the ERC-20 Ethereum-fundamentally based GOLD token.
Record Number To Screen Gold Bullion: 17081–9200 GOLD STEEL IN BULLION VAULT.
You can safe your gold tokens on any ERC-20 pockets. IMTOKEN, TRUST WALLET ARE Extremely Sheltered, Aside from YOU Quit FOR A Chilly Stockpiling.
Digital Gold token settlement subtleties
Ticker: GOLD
Contract Address: 0x2c36204a0712a2a50e54a62f7c4f01867e78cb53
Decimal:18
The Gold token is higher than any steady coin supported through fiat far off places cash in view of the reality the gold token can't be dispossessed or solidified and the reason for this is because of the truth the genuine gold that supported it's far spared in a quiet vault in a nation that lower back responsibility for with a law.
For more information visit:
Website : https://gold.storage
Whitepaper : https://gold.storage/wp.pdf
Telegram : https://t.me/digitalgoldcoin
Twitter : https://twitter.com/gold_erc20
Medium: https://medium.com/@digitalgoldcoin
MY BTT Username: ittunes
Bitcointalk Url: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2631613;sa=summary
submitted by ironladyy to CryptoICONews [link] [comments]

COMPETENT EXCHANGE PLATFORM DESIGNED FOR IMPROVED DIGITAL ASSETS TRADING

INTRODUCING SYNCHROBIT EXCHANGE
SYNCHROBIT is a unique marketplace that integrates fiat and digital currencies for trading in pairs with other cryptocurrency assets. The SYNCHROBIT exchange is built with user friendly features favorable for both amateur and professional traders with incorporated mechanisms such as compatible and customizable UI, advanced accurate charts and real time data analytics. Although, the cryptocurrency market grows on a limitless rate, several blockchain startups, business owners etc faces difficulty in locating a trading platform that is trustworthy, transparent, devoid of problems enough to allow them trade their digital assets and apply for listing, because these exchanges are struggling with challenges which includes expensive cost of listing, delays, limited in available crypto trading pairs, manipulation and much more. The SYNCHROBIT exchange platform, designed by professionals who have experience in cryptocurrency and forex investments, will serve as an innovative trading platform that provides excellent solutions to cryptocurrency enthusiasts, business owners, companies etc which will help them to avoid the problems of most unimproved trading platforms occupying the cryptocurrency market. SYNCHROBIT exchange is the first business platform developed for exchanging all types of cryptocurrencies, energy, precious metals, commodities etc. The trading platform is integrated with vast list of diverse options for trading which includes binary options trading, margin trading and so much more. Users within the SYNCHROBIT platform can receive access to socialization solutions as well as social trading, smart contract trading and smart options that is connected to the market trends for innovative trading. To ensure users have the best experience in digital assets trading, SYNCHROBIT exchange comprises of excellent customer support which is made up of skilled and qualified customer service personnels to ensure that users are provided assistance and support 24/7 in relation to inquiries and issues. The security system, built to be more advanced than centralized banks, forex markets and stock markets, where users tradable funds are stored securely in a high tech wallet that will never hold the private keys in the platform's database. Traders can also benefit from the fast matching trade order of the SYNCHROBIT platform because the trading core is completely capable of processing 1,000,000 orders per second while liquidity is guaranteed through strategic partnership with prominent trading platforms in the market. The SYNCHROBIT exchange also have it's own native token called SNB token. SNB token will serve the role of a utility token, compliant to ERC20 standard and ensure users have access to reduction in trading and transaction fees.
FINAL THOUGHTS SYNCHROBIT exchange introduces new solutions and tools to help cryptocurrency enthusiasts, traders business owners etc manage their tradable assets and recieve profit, while at same time promoting the continuous adoption of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology to the world.
SNB DISTRIBUTION
Public sale- 60%
Private sale- 3%
Pre-ICO sales- 2%
Airdrops, promotions and bounty- 1%
Reserve- 15%
Bonus- 9%
Team and advisors- 10%
USE OF FUNDS
Platform improvements and operations- 25%
SNB token liquidity- 25%
Company reserve- 15%
Listings and market development- 5%
Marketing- 15%
Legal- 5%
Team and investors- 10%
Kindly use the following links below to get more information ;
Website: https://snbtoken.io/
Whitepaper: https://snbtoken.io/images/wp.pdf
ANN Thread: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5171896.new#new
Telegram: https://t.me/Synchronium
Medium: https://medium.com/@synchroniumglobal
Twitter:https://twitter.com/SynchroniumLtd
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SynchroBit
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/useSynchroBit/
Linkedln: https://www.linkedin.com/company/synchronium/
Bitcointalk username : Johnson Knight
Bitcointalk Profile URL : https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2326370;sa=summary
ETH wallet : 0x56D391aD6C5Fe4b4faee3FCF9C7D32D9BD2feeCA
submitted by Cryptosaurus94 to CryptoCluster [link] [comments]

12-31 04:32 - 'What is Forex? What do you know about it?' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/mohammedmousa91 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 28-38min

'''
What is Forex? What do you know about it? In this short article we will give a very good overview about what is forex and how it works! So please get your coffee and try to enjoy reading it as your piece of cake magazine.
So again what is forex ? The global market of exchanging foreign currency is known as currency trading or as Forex (FX). Forex is the largest liquid market where the trading of currencies from all around the world is done. The market is achieving $5 trillion trading volume on a regular basis. The target is so large that world's all stock markets together unable to cross or even achieved it.

What is forex & Why Forex is Beneficial for you?

Let's take a tour of Forex and find some interesting characteristics which might be not present in other kinds of trading or investments. You can follow us on [Youtube]1 or our [blog]2 .
[Demo trade for Saudi Stocks]3
Suppose if a person went to abroad, he/she always exchange currencies. Let's assume that person lives in London and plans a trip to France and for that he turn his pounds into euros. The base of this exchange of currencies is supply and demand which discovers how much euros that person get in place of his pounds.
Most of the times, the transactions face sort of fluctuations. On Monday if pound to euro rate is 1.19, on Tuesday this could be 1.20 euro. no variation can be seen on a small-scale but what if this change is happening on a large-scale. Like the international companies, which give salaries to various foreign employees. Now, assume what can be done to get the sum and substances. As in pound to euro rate example, a person exchange money only by taking exchange rate into consideration as a small transaction add up expeditiously. In both the scenarios, either the traveler or business person, wants to resist their currency as late as currency exchange rate not becomes beneficial for their pockets.
[All stocks today]4
'''
What is Forex? What do you know about it?
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: mohammedmousa91
1: *ww.y**tube.*om/*hann*l/UC*0**A**bFiVOl-2SbTCZ*g 2: l***24ksa*com/ 3: l*ve24ks**co*/****AA%*8*A*%*8%**%D9%88%D9%84-%D8%A*%D8%*C%D8***%D9%8A%D8%A8%D*%8*-%D9%84*D*%*4%D8%A7%D8***%*9%87%**%85-%*8**7%D9%8***8%B3*D8%B9**9*88%D8%AF*D9%8A%D8%A9* 4: li*e2**sa*com/cat**ory/*D8%A7%D9*84%D8%A7%*8*B3*D9*8*%**%85/%D8%AC%D***5%D9%8*%D8%B9-%**%*7*D9%84%D8*A3%D8%B3%D9%87%D*%85*%***A*%***84*D9%8A*D9%88%D9**5*
Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

Crown Jewels: Major Achievements of Azbit’s Pros

Crown Jewels: Major Achievements of Azbit’s Pros

https://preview.redd.it/z01xzlhljp421.jpg?width=1000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ee5b4bc08db658efd9c684c7123c2b25d144e030
Behind each achievement at any company are people. Azbit’s success story would not have been possible without the pool of gifted minds - those who are taking the project to a qualitatively new level. The team’s and advisors’ extensive experience, authority, knowledge, and impeccable record are our prime capital (literally crown jewels) and pride.
The following are major achievements of professionals engaged in project’s development:
Roger Ver (Advisor)
“Bitcoin Jesus” is a person who clearly needs no introduction. He is founder & CEO of Bitcoin.com, bitcoin evangelist and angel investor. In 2018 he was ranked number 36 in Fortune’s The Ledger 40 under 40 for transforming business at the leading edge of finance and technology. Since 2011 Roger Ver took part in successful projects, including Bitpay, Ripple, Blockchain.info, Kraken, Coinsetter.
Mate Tokay (Advisor)
Mate Tokay manages the top source in the world of Bitcoin - Bitcoin.com.
Giovanni Lesna Maranetto (Advisor)
Giovanni is a blockchain strategist, entrepreneur, speaker, and, the icing on the cake, a top 30 ICOBench Advisor.
Max Zmitrovich (CEO, co-founder)
His latest projects include participation and directing business development of projects around the world, to include cryptocurrency exchange and international trading companies Veles Limited, Poliphone SIA, largest UK estate agency Connells, manufacturing company EELL, Rivera.
Michael Yermolitski (Co-Founder)
Michael Yermolitski is a holder of a $1,500,000 crypto portfolio. Head of a group of companies in the B2B and B2C sphere.
Prof. Alex Siow (Enterprise Risk Manager)
He has a fundamental 38-year experience in the sphere of Strategic Planning and IT. Alex Siow was at the forefront of the IT sphere development and has become a living legend of the Asian business community. He is a Professor in the National University of Singapore.
Azam Khodzhaev (Chief Communications Officer)
Azam Khodzhaev is Eastern Europe’s No. 1 thought leader in the crypto and mining sphere. He is an independent advisor to the Russian government on blockchain.
Andy Yeo (Blockchain Lawyer, AML-specialist)
An authoritative analytical portal, Global Investigations Review, featured Andy Yeo as one of the leading AML experts. He is a top-pro in the area of securities and banking regulatory compliance.
Elena Certa (Advisor)
She is Director, FSA Direct Access Clients at Bank J. Safra Sarasin Ltd (Switzerland). Elena has over 11 years of experience in trading in capital markets focusing on FX, commodities and interest rates.
Mickey Choi (Advisor)
Mickey Choi is a prominent representative of the Korean private investor community with 11 years of financial experience. He was honored by a special award at 2018 Global 100 and received a merit of recognition in the New Technology Innovation Target category.
Sergei Ermolitski (Head of Operations, co-Founder)
Sergei Ermolitski has extensive experience of cybersecurity for financial IT projects. For a long time, he held the position of CEO at FxCash, the first Forex cashback service in Eastern Europe.
Andrew Rohau (Chief Technology Officer)
Andrew has 17 years’ experience in the development of technical solutions, IT, system architecture, business analysis. Back in the early 2000s, he was at the forefront in designing and implementing computer networks based on technologies of Cisco Systems. Worked with international organizations, including Open Technologies, Huawei Technologies, UNDP, UNICEF, UNHCR.
Stefan Bergström (Business Strategic Advisor)
He invested in nearly two dozen tech start-ups. Stefan Bergström is strategist and business consultant at a number of companies and successful blockchain projects, including CoinAnalyst, MapCoin, Aimedis, Ufity SA, Sidera Blockchain Technologies, NOBAR, Netscouters International, TokenMatch.
Yulia Gushchina (VP of Sales and Partnership)
Yulia has deep knowledge in the sphere of business relations psychology, international and diplomatic relations with top level businesses and State local Government customers. Prior to joining Azbit, she has worked in Strategic Development at Huawei Technologies Co.Ltd.
Pavel Kalashnikau (Advisor)
He is co-Founder and director of FxCash, one of the leading forex cashback services.
Lam Riki Pham (Head of Strategic Planning)
Lam is a highly experienced leader in financial industry with over 10 years’ experience. He has been working with the State Bank of Vietnam as a Government Officer for Strategy planning for the banking industry.
Dmitry Gursky (Chief Business Development Officer)
Independent blockchain consultant to the government of the Russian Federation and the CIS countries. Dmitry Gursky participated in the release of the first projects with Security Tokens
Alex Moroz (Chief Marketing Officer)
Alex developed his own exclusive methodology for ensuring an effective promotion system, which he has successfully applied in several Fintech startups.
Max Seluk (Advisor)
Max Seluk is CEO of KMA.biz, one of the biggest partner networks in the field of banking, finance, retail and e-commerce.

Join our Telegram group and social media communities to stay updated!
submitted by Azbit_news to u/Azbit_news [link] [comments]

Your PM US Stocks and a whole lot more news that you need to read: US stocks close lower, pare earlier losses on Brexit progress

US Markets End of Day Snapshot


Stocks Trending in the News

Click name for Q-Factor rating and financials data.

US Treasuries


Currencies


Commodities


submitted by QuantalyticsResearch to stocks [link] [comments]

Emigrating - moving money to Canada

As someone emigrating from SA to Canada, what would be the best way to move money (more than R100k, less than R1M) from FNB to my Canadian bank account?
I've used FNB's online banking forex before. The fees were 0.5% of transfer value, and the exchange rate was about 3.5% worse than what Google's currency conversion was saying at the time.
I've heard suggestions so far of Kruger Rands, bitcoin and travel wallet/traveller's cheques. Does anybody here have experience with these, or a better approach to recommend?
submitted by bradavan to southafrica [link] [comments]

Direct Profits Review 2015 - Is Direct Profits SCAM Or LEGIT? Best Binary Options Trading Software? The Truth About Direct Profits System By Peter Rice Review

Direct Profits Review 2015 - DIRECT PROFITS?? Find out the Secrets about Direct Profits in this Direct Profits review! So What is Direct Profits Software all about? Does Direct Profits Actually Work? Is Direct Profits Software scam or does it really work?
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submitted by KelterLichtenfeld47 to KelterLichtenfeld [link] [comments]

SA's most celebrated Forex Trader on his ways of making ... Exchange Rates (Forex - Direct & Indirect Quotes)  CA ... SA forex millionaires - John Ghatti forex lifestyle ... Level 1 CFA Economics: Currency Exchange Rates-Lecture 1 ... South African forex traders showing off forex withdrawals ... Forex Trading Course (LEARN TO TRADE STEP BY STEP)libreng ...

Foreign Exchange Rates (FOREX) Disclaimer: While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the rates published on the Bank's website, customer are advised to verify the rates with your account holding branch. Payment Services and Fees . Personal Banking . Business Banking ... Forex rates, interest rates and inflation rates are all interconnected. Should there be increases in interest rates, a country’s currency will start to appreciate. This is due to higher interest rates providing much higher rates to lenders, which subsequently attracts more foreign capital and which in turn causes a rise in exchange rates. The South African Rand (ZAR) exchange rates represented on this page are live, updated every minute within the forex market's trading hours of 22:00 Sunday through 21:00 Friday GMT. Use links ... Access currency exchange rates back to January, 1990: Type currency names, 3-letter ISO currency symbols, or country names to select your currency. Convert world currencies, precious metals, or obsolete currencies, which are marked with an asterisk (*). Choose a percentage from the interbank rate list to better approximate the tourist exchange rates actually charged by your financial ... Indices exchange rates. Market Overview ; Prime Rate Full Listing ; Share Price Information Full Listing ; JSE Full Listing ; International Full Listing ; Exchange Rate Full Listing ; Unit Trusts Full Listing ; Exchange rates CIB Full Listing ; Absa Exchange Rate. Currency Name Multiply or Divide Buy Transfers Buy Cheques Buy Notes & T/Cheques Sell T/Cheques & Transfers Sell Notes; AED: United ... SARS Rates of Exchange version 2.0.0. Home. Get Single Values. Get Multiple Values. Please note that the date format of Rates of Exchange is CCYY/MM/DD DISCLAIMER: This information is provided as a service to the users of the SARS-online web site and is based on the best information available. SARS accept no liability for incorrect information. If in doubt users should confirm the Rates of ... This currency rates table lets you compare an amount in South African Rand to all other currencies. Skip to Main Content ... Historic Lookup; Home > South African Rand Exchange Rates Table South African Rand Exchange Rates Table Converter Top 10 Nov 11, 2020 16:13 UTC. South African Rand 1.00 ZAR inv. 1.00 ZAR; US Dollar: 0.063720: 15.693649: Euro: 0.054176: 18.458499 : British Pound: 0.048263 ... The exchange rates are indicative only as at the time and date shown, are subject to market movements and therefore change continuously. They may also vary depending on the type of the transaction involved, and may be different for transactions over a certain amount. They should not be relied upon as an accurate representation of any final pricing. You should contact BankSA for up-to-date ... South African Rand exchange rates and currency conversion. South Africa currency (ZAR). Track Rand forex rate changes, track Rand historical changes. Directory of best currency transfer providers, compare to exchange rates when sending money from South Africa The South African Rand is the currency of South Africa. Our currency rankings show that the most popular South Africa Rand exchange rate is the USD to ZAR rate. The currency code for Rand is ZAR, and the currency symbol is R. Below, you'll find South African Rand rates and a currency converter.

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SA's most celebrated Forex Trader on his ways of making ...

This is Reading 18 for the 2020 exam. This CFA exam prep video lecture covers: The foreign exchange market Nominal and real exchange rates Examples For the C... Forex Trading Course (LEARN TO TRADE STEP BY STEP)libreng matuto sa forex ___Exchange Rates We simplify your financial learnings. Subscribe here to learn more of Strategic Financial Management: https://goo.gl/HTY5SN CA Final SFM Fast Track Course:... SA forex millionaires - John Ghatti forex lifestyle - making money with private wealth robot EA. John Ghatti is the founder of winners ground forex mentorshi... South African forex traders showing off forex withdrawals money profits. ----- DO... Refiloe Nkele is one of South Africa's most celebrated forex trader who has made millions of dollars in forex over the years. A high school dropout, he is no...

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